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30-09-2019

Product code Economics-Quizlet1062

1Q-Within the framework of the unified theory of development, the best example of how regulational changes interact with contextual changes during the early elementary years is:
a. a child regularly mentions that math class is too easy, so his father enrolls him in an after school program for advanced students.
b. a parent notices her child's increasing attention span while they are reading together and takes the child to get her own library card.
c. a child wants to join the local swim team, but his mother says no because she thinks he is still too young for competitive teams.
d. a parent notices that his child is not eating well and doesn't seem interesting in trying new foods, so starts packing lunch foods that he cuts into unique shapes.

2Q-Bending, stretching, twisting, turning, swinging, balancing, body rolling, staring, stopping, and dodging are referred to as:
a. stability movement skills
b. manipulative movement skills
c. loco motor movement skills.
d. muscle movement skills.

3Q-Walking, running, jumping, hopping, skipping, sliding, leaping, climbing, and galloping are referred to as:
a. locomotor movement skills
b. stability movement skills
c. manipulative motor movement skills
d. muscle movement

4Q-Throwing, catching, kicking, punting, trapping, striking, volleying, bouncing, and ball rolling are referred to as:
a. locomotor movement skills
b. manipulative movement skills.
c. muscle movement skills
d. stability movement skills

5Q-A gross motor skill that a 7-year-old most likely has developed, but a 5-year-old most likely has not, is:
a. singing and dancing at the same time
b. jumping rope consistently and rythmically
c. changing directions while dribbling a basketball
d. running forward and changing direction when a whistle blows.

6Q-Research on unstructured play in marginalized populations suggest that:
a. regardless of culture, unstructured play tends to be cooperative and inclusive
b. cultural beliefs have a big influence on the ways in which children play
c. most cultures consider play to be fun and carefree, rather than preparation for adulthood
d. in cultures where team sports are popular, play is usually structured and game-like

7Q-A skill that shows typically developing dexterity in grade-school children is:
a. throwing an object with an overhand motion
b. holding a pencil correctly
c. cutting with scissors
d. unlocking a door with a key.

8Q-Between the ages of 6 and 10, children's rate of growth tends to:
a. slow down slightly
b. increase significantly, with a major growth spurt.
c. increase slightly but continuously
remain relatively stable

9Q-At age 8, boys tend to weigh:
a. more than girls of the same age
b. less than girls of the same age
c. about the same as girls who are 10 years old.
d. about the same as girls of the same age

10Q-By age 6 or 7, children have several permanent teeth. The earliest to erupt are usually:
a. premolars and canines.
b. central incisors and first molars
c. second and third molars
d. central and lateral incisors

11Q-A child who seems uncoordinated or delayed in terms of movement will NOT be diagnosed as having motor skills disorder UNLESS:
a. the child has no other delays in cognitive or social skills
b. the problem can be effectively treated with assistive devices
c. the problems interfere with academic achievement or life skills
d. the child has difficulty with both gross and fine motor skills

12Q-When considering enrolling a child in a sports program or team, parents should give the most weight to whether the coach:
a. has advanced certification from the national organization that supports the sport
b. has ideas about competition and sportsmanship that are compatible with their own
c. makes sure that every child on the team has equal opportunity to play on the field.
d. is highly knowledgeable about research in child development

13Q-The main difference between how children approach a challenge and a hazard is that:
a. hazards are always dangerous, but challenges rarely are
b. challenges are within the child's ability, whereas hazards are not
c. hazards have high risk, but challenges have little or no risk
d. children do not recognize hazards, but they recognize and assess challenges.

14Q-Because bikes, skateboards, and scooters can be hazardous, children aged 5 through 8 should:
a. buy their own equipment, rather than sharing with other children
b.always wear helmets and/or other protective gear
c. avoid using them without an adult watching
d. use them only on playgrounds and at parks

15Q-According to Erikson, children age 5-8 focus primarily on:
a. achieving a sense of mastery of social and academic skills
b. becoming independent in age-appropriate ways.
c. taking control over their own self and the environment
d. developing a clear sense of appropriate and moral behavior

16Q-Erikson argued that primary-grade children who do not develop a sense of industry instead develop a sense of:
a. isolation
b. inferiority
c. shame
d. guilt

17Q-The type of moral reasoning that Piaget called moral realism is characterized by:
a. a belief that moral rules are different than social conventional rules
b. very little concern for rules at all
c. a belief that rules can't be changed or broken
d. a belief that people get to make their own rules

18Q-When children adopt adults' behavior standards and act on them without being told, they have:
a. used conventional moral reasoning
b. developed moral realism
c. internalized the rules
d. developed heteronomous morality

19Q-Piaget's second level of moral development, characterized by rule-bound thinking, is called:
a. initiative
b. conventional
c. moral realism
d. self-actualization

20Q-Children whose reasoning would be characterized as based on moral relativism make judgements based on:
a. expectations for rewards
b. the consequences of the behavior
c. situations and intentions
d. their own ideas of right and wrong

21Q-Children are most likely to develop a strong sense of conscience if:
a. they are already at the stage of moral relativism
b. they can distinguish between social conventions and moral rules
c. their parents use supportive and affectionate discipline strategies
d. they reason about moral issues at a postconventional .

22Q-Which of the following is NOT a typical fear for a school-aged child?
a. imaginary creatures
b. Ridicule and embarrassment
c. being different
d. dark

23Q-Kohlberg argued that most school-aged children reason at the conventional level, believing that good behavior is:
a. behavior that adheres to a universal sense of right and wrong
b. behavior that does not result in punishment
c. behavior that leads to a reward
d. behavior that pleases or helps others

24Q-A parent who tells a child, "I am really disappointed in you" is using a form of discipline known as:
a. punishment.
b. inductive discipline.
c. love withdrawal.
d. behavior modification.

25Q-Emily, at age 6, is scared of the dark. Her parents ignore her when she says that she doesn't want to go to sleep with the door closed, because they think her fear will go away if they don't respond to it. Emily's parents are trying to:
a. classically condition a new response to the dark room.
b. operantly condition a new response to the dark room.
c. extinguish her fear of the dark. 
d. negatively reinforce her fear of the dark.

26Q-In primary school, children who had insecure attachment relationships with their caregivers when they were infants are most likely to:
a. trust their peers but show hostility or aggression toward teachers.
b. become overly attached to a caring and warm teacher. 
c. develop new, secure attachments as they develop more self-control.
d. think that other people will not be available when they are needed.

27Q-Research suggests that elementary-age boys who have trouble identifying the emotions that are conveyed by common facial expressions are also likely to have difficulty:
a. developing a strong sense of self.
b. reading with emotional intonation.
c. learning new things at school. 
d. getting along with their peers.

28Q-In the primary-school years, a child's self-concept typically expands to include:
a. the child's attachment relationship with his/her parent(s). 
b. the child's beliefs about what others think of him/her.
c. the child's ability to regulate his/her own behavior.
d. the child's understanding of complex and mixed emotions.

29Q-An example of an ecological stress that a grade-school child might experience is:
a. being born with a difficult temperament.
b. having an intellectual disability.
c. not being invited to a classmate's birthday party. 
d. living with an abusive parent.

30Q-School-age children are least likely to say they are afraid of:
a. having to repeat a grade.
b. imaginary creatures and monsters.
c. being separated from their parents. 
d. being different from their friends.

31Q-"Felt gender typicality" refers to:
a. overall satisfaction with one's gender category.
b. the extent to which a child feels "I am a girl" or "I am a boy."
c. the belief that one must avoid the other gender's behaviors.
d. the way in which teachers segregate children on the basis of gender.

32Q-In general, children progress from being able to identify strong emotions but not being able to control them to from being able to calm down their own strong emotions between:
a. preschool and kindergarten.
b. kindergarten and first grade. 
c. second grade and third grade.
d. first grade and second grade.

33Q-In the early primary grades, children typically choose friends basis of:
a. desirable possessions, such as a cool computer.
b. parental interventions, such as planned play dates.
c. shared situational factors, such as being in the same scouting troop. 
d. positive attributes, such as being nice.

34Q-Teachers of grade-school children who sometimes have tantrums, engage in power struggles, or occasionally aggressive are advised to:
a. remember that these behaviors, when they are occasional, are signs of a maturing and healthy child.
b. refer the parent(s) to specialists who can identify and treat the specific behavioral disorder the child shows. 
c. contact the parents/guardians to assess the child's attachment to one or more adult caregivers.
d. ignore the behaviors, because the children will ultimately outgrow them.

35Q-Research suggests that children who are socially anxious as toddlers are more likely than their peers to:
a. be insecurely attached to parents in the first grade.
b. be rejected by peers in the first grade.
c. be overly dependent on parents in the first grade. 
d. be neglected by peers in the first grade.

36Q-Children who have conduct disorder are most likely to:
a. have been born preterm or at a low birth weight. 
b. show a pattern of serious rule violations.
c. feel sad, hopeless, and lonely.
d. be consistently angry, irritable, and vindictive.

37Q-Research on how to help grade-school children with emotional and behavioral challenges develop more positive behaviors suggests that the most effective course of action is:
a. culturally relevant care and education.
b. waiting until the children are old enough to understand and contribute to therapy.
c. interventions that include the adults in the child's life who provide support.
d. a combination of drug therapy and individual counseling.

38Q-A primary goal of an anti-bias curriculum is to:
a. foster awareness and understanding of race, race differences, and racism.
b. support a zero-tolerance policy for aggression or hateful speech based on prejudices. 
c. provide a racially and culturally neutral educational experience.
d. encourage all children to make cross-cultural friendships.

39Q-Children who try to avoid being judged negatively by their peers are more likely to:
a. tend to be bystanders who observe bullying behavior but do nothing to help. 
b. engage in aggressive, bullying behavior.
c. be the victims of bullying behavior.
d. be classroom leaders.

40Q-The authors of the text recommend that, in afterschool programs for grade school children, academic activities should be:
a. designed to seem as if they are "fun" rather than "work."
b. kept to a minimum.
c. focused on academic enrichment not available in class. 
d. primarily support for children doing homework.

41Q-A grammatical development that occurs during the primary years is the ability to understand:
a. sentences
b. infinitive phrases
c. syntax
d. nouns

42Q-A psychophysiological response to a perceived threat is called:
a. downshifting.
b. repression. 
c. neuroshifting.
d. altruism.

43Q-The ability of early school-age children to think about the multiple meanings of words allows them to understand: 
a. jokes. 
b. syntax.
c. sarcasm.
d. pronominal references.

44Q-Children ages 6 to 8 demonstrate an increasing awareness of the speech variations needed in different social situations. This is called an awareness of:
a. syntax.
b. shading.
c. registers.
d. vocabulary nuances.

45Q-When a teacher helps children learn to read by providing familiar words in a context of specific, meaningful experiences, the strategy is called:
a. using sight words.
b. part-to whole. 
c. phonics-based.
d. whole-to part.

46Q-Which of the following reading and writing instructional approaches does the NAEYC and IRA most support?
a. Contextualized skill lessons
b. Meaningful connected reading 
c. Phonics
d. Phonics and meaningful connected reading

47Q-The spiral curriculum, as originally envisioned by Bruner, emphasizes:
a. introducing and assessing the basic and advanced content from the established core curriculum.
b. instruction in which new concepts build on previous knowledge as the student progresses.
c. a warm and accepting classroom atmosphere that promotes creativity and intuition.
d. teaching topics that are within every child's individual zone of proximal development.

48Q-Grade-school children begin to use the conversational technique of shading to:
a. identify the rules of conversation used in their culture.
b. combine words appropriately into meaningful sentences. 
c. produce and interpret nonliteral language.
d. change the topic of a conversation.

49Q-Research evidence suggests that quality after-school programs are SAFE, with the E standing for the idea that the program emphasizes:
a. emphasizing active forms of learning.
b. educating the program staff to use a step-by-step approach. 
c. focusing on the executive function skills of attention and working memory.
d. being explicit in defining the skills they were attempting to promote.

50Q-From a neoconstructivist point of view, learning and development are:
a. genetically pre-programmed.
b. based on the acquisition of key coding systems. 
c. interrelated but different.
d. primarily computational.

51Q-Grade schoolers who have trouble keeping basic math skills in mind as they solve more complex problems most likely have a limitation in:
a. attention.
b. regulation of information. 
c. working memory.
d. ability to downshift.

52Q-Based on the current core curriculum standards in most states, a math lesson on skip counting by 5s would be most appropriate for children in:
a. first grade.
b. second grade.
c. third grade. 
d. kindergarten.

53Q-Based on the current core curriculum standards in most states, a science lesson that involves using a thermometer to compare indoor and outdoor temperatures would be most appropriate for children in:
a. second grade.
b. kindergarten. 
c. third grade.
d. first grade.

54Q-Although understanding nonliteral language is challenging for grade-school children, first-graders are usually able to:
a. identify when a person is lying in order to spare another's feelings.
b. understand simple similes, such as "he is as brave as a lion." 
c. understand subject and agent roles, such as "The doll is easy to see."
d. recognize a sarcastic remark that doesn't fit with the context of the conversation.

55Q-A kindergartener who says "we wented to the store" is most likely to:

a. say "dogs" to refer to wolves, coyotes, and puppies.
b. say "we went to the store" just as often. 
c. have learned two languages with different syntax.
d. have a delay in expressive language.

56Q-Kindergarten-age children who are usually to use pragmatic language to : 
a. use eye contact to help keep a conversational partner interested.
b. participate actively and appropriately in conversations.
c. inform, persuade, and entertain a listener. 
d. tell and retell stories in a logical order.

57Q-In general, one of the best indicators that children are ready to learn to read is when children:
a. have parents who read to them regularly.
b. spontaneously select a book and recite the story from memory.
c. understand that printed symbols carry meaning.
d. are able to name the letters of the alphabet.

58Q-Ideally, primary-grade instruction on reading and writing is:
a. interrelated and integrated in content domains throughout the day.
b. separate, with more focus on reading skills than writing skills.
c. holistic and focused primarily on communicating effectively.
d. largely spontaneous, based on the interests and skills of the children.

59Q-When children in first and second grade use invented spelling in their writing, teachers and parents are advised to:
a. provide conventional spellings for words that should be familiar.
b. be supportive of children's efforts without excessive corrections. 
c. consider having the child assessed for a language-specific learning disability.
d. encourage conventional spelling in class work but not private writing.

60Q-In the U.S., most children learn to write narratives with events in the appropriate order during:
a. second grade.
b. third grade.
c. first grade. 
d. kindergarten.

61Q-When a teacher has a student who has difficulty processing the sounds in her native language, the teacher may want to recommend that the child be evaluated for:
a. dysgraphia.
b. dyscalculia.
c. dyslexia. 
d. dysfluency.

62Q-When critics argue that the Common Core State Standards are "not developmentally based," they mean that:
a. researchers decided to begin standardized testing in the third grade, leaving younger children without appropriate test-taking skills.
b. researchers targeted only English language arts and mathematics, without considering what children should know in other content disciplines.
c. researchers first identified skills necessary for high school graduation and then worked backwards to identify skills for earlier grades.
d. researchers focused more on basic grade-level cognitive skills than on assessing individual differences among students.

63Q-To implement Common Core State Standards in a way that is most effective for grade-school boys of color, researchers and educators recommend that:
a. parents work with children on their homework to ensure that they are not falling further behind.
b. the standards be modified when necessary to account for the diversity of skills and experiences among children of color. 
c. teachers review and, if necessary, modify the curriculum to ensure it presents accurate, positive role models for all children.
d. communities provide after-school enrichment programs for boys who are regularly exposed to violence and trauma at home.

 

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1Q-Within the framework of the unified theory of development, the best example of how regulational changes interact with contextual changes during the early elementary years is: a. a child regularly mentions that math class is too easy, so his father enrolls him in an after school program for advanced students. b. a parent notices her child's increasing attention span while they are reading together and takes the child to get her own library card. c. a child wants to join the local swim team, but his mother says no because she thinks he is still too young for competitive teams. d. a parent notices that his child is not eating well and doesn't seem interesting in trying new foods, so starts packing lunch foods that he cuts into unique shapes. 1A-b. a parent notices that her child's increasing attention span while they are reading together and takes the child to get her own library card.

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