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02-08-2018

Product code:-Medical-QA387

I'm a third medical student and hoping to get help on writing my research paper. My research topic is: Effectiveness of cultural competence on patient outcome. My hypothesis: Cross-cultural competence training helps to enhance doctor-patient relations and patients’ adherence leading to improved patient health outcome if actively applied in the clinical years of training

Here are some of the criteria:

 

A standard format is used for writing scientific papers that includes: A title page with the author’s name
An abstract
An introduction with background information

Themethodsused
Aresultssection
A discussion/interpretation of the results

Literature cited
Tables and figures (i.e. evidence table)

TITLE – should be brief and narrowly focused.
ABSTRACT (~250 words) – The Abstract is a succinct summary of the papers hypothesis, methods, results and

conclusions. It is placed at the beginning of the paper; however it is written at the end of the process.

INTRODUCTION – The Introduction provides a rationale for why the study was done. It should begin with a broad introduction to the issues, and narrow its focus to the specifics of the hypothesis-based review. It should convince the reader that an important topic and research question has been addressed via a clear hypothesis. It could include data on the public health impact (e.g., incidence rate, mortality rate, costs) of the problem when possible. By the end of the introduction, the reader should understand what your study was about and why it was an important study to do.

METHODS – The Methods must contain enough information to enable another investigator to replicate your study. This section must include:

How articles were selected (search strategy) Search terms used
Inclusion and exclusion criteria

How you created your evidence table(s)

In addition, it may include:
Definitions of important terms

Descriptions of any calculations you made

RESULTS - Typically, the first results presented describe the sample of articles on which the remaining results are based. Describe the studies in general. How many articles with a specific study design were found? How many head-to-head comparisons were found? How many with a particular type of study population? How many studies used a certain type of outcome assessment? You may want to create a table summarizing this information. Below is an outline of what a Study Design Table may look like.

Summary of Study Designs Reviewed

Study Design

# of Studies

Clinical Trial

4

Cohort Study

5

Case Series

3

 

After you have described the studies in general, describe the studies in detail, using tables and graphs to augment the reader’s understanding. This section must contain student-generated writing and NOT merely tables and graphics. At a minimum, touch upon the elements listed in the selection criteria and give the main results of the studies. The text should refer to any tables, graphs and figures (if included), but should not reiterate the information contained in them. The most important aspect of the Results section is that the author provides a synthesis of the data contained in the sources utilized. Merely compiling a list of 1 study = 1 paragraph is not acceptable.

It is important to understand that when you are reviewing a volume of evidence on a particular topic that not all forms of evidence can be considered of equal value. It is widely accepted in the scientific and healthcare community that there are four levels of clinical treatment evidence. Although there are subtle variations depending on the organization, the basic categorizations are the same. These distinctions can be noted in the evidence table which is most appropriately placed as an Appendix at the end the paper

Level 0: Preclinical studies– including experimental studies and animal models Level 1: Randomized controlled trials

Level 2: Non-randomized controlled trial – a prospective (pre-planned) study with a predetermined eligibility criteria and outcome measures

Level 3: Observational studies with controls- includes retrospective, case-control studies, and cohort studies Level 4:Observational studies without controls – includes cohort studies without controls, case series without

controls, case studies without controls

DISCUSSION - The Discussion must demonstrate an interpretation of the results. Discuss the implications of the methodological choices made by the authors or weaknesses and limitations of the studies examined and how those choices or weaknesses could influence the results of the individual studies and the results of your hypothesis-based review. Comment on the ability to generalize (i.e., does it apply to all patients, only pediatric patients, patients in both urban and rural areas, etc.) from your study. Was your hypothesis proven or disproven? What are possible areas for

future study?

LITERATURE CITED - a standard bibliographic format using either APA or ICJME for all articles cited (see Appendix B). All referenced primary literature must be read thoroughly to ensure proper attribution of cited data and concepts.

APPENDICES - Evidence Table, Graphs, Figures, etc.

The Evidence Table created for RLRA Research Proposal – Part II should serve as a guide as you create the Results section of the paper. The Evidence Table is not meant to limit the resources that you use as you should update and add to it as you begin to write the RLRA Preliminary Draft. The evidence table should not be included as part of the

 

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The research paper highlights that, nurses are facing major challenges for delivering care facilities to unprecedented number of patient, under the guidelines of practice code as well as ethics.

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